Salt Pollution

Background and the Adirondack Council co-sponsored a second inter-organizational conference on June 13th 2011 at Paul Smith's College to address the growing problem of winter road salt damage in the Adirondack Park.

Daniel Kelting, executive director of the Paul Smith's Adirondack Watershed Institute (AWI), presented dramatic new research on chloride loading along road networks that abut watersheds in the Adirondack Park. His conclusions which have extraordinary statistical validity point to the use of salt on state roads as the single most important cause of high sodium and chloride levels in Park lakes. Dr. Kelting's abstract of his study can be viewed here, and the complete transcription of his presentation including the illustrations from his powerpoint slides can be found here

Dr. Kelting's presentation was a follow up to the important publication commissioned by and released by Kelting and the AWI last year titled Review of Effects and Costs of Road De-icing with Recommendations for Winter Road Management in the Adirondack Park, which can be viewed by clicking here

To read the conference minutes click here. 


Status of our Project has made good progress in our efforts to reduce the use of salt in winter road maintenance. Dr. Daniel Kelting of the Paul Smith's Adirondack Watershed Institute (PSAWI) says "About 176,000 tons of road salt it spread on paved road in the Adirondack Park each year, making road salt one of the most significant external contaminants in terms of total annual load to watersheds in our region. Because Adirondack soils are thin and porous, most of this salt ends up in ground and surface water." Dr. Kelting and his team wrote the study of road salt and its alternatives that we sponsored in 2010 and presented ground-breaking research at our 2011 conference linking the State's salting program directly to the build-up of sodium and chlorides in our watersheds. To view click HERE.

With the help of our elected officials, notably Senator Betty Little, and the Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) under Commissioner Joan McDonald and the Department of Conservation (NYSDEC) under Commissioner Joe Martens, we have reached agreement with NYSDOT on a broad salt reduction program that started with NYSDOT's across-the-board 10% reduction in salt use for the entire state. For the Adirondacks, NYSDOT has agreed to develop programs for three test roads which will be subject to even further reduced salt use. These roads are Route 8 west of the Northway, Route 73 through the Cascades north of Keene, Route 30 from the intersection with Route 3 in the south and Route 186 in the north, and Route 3 from the intersection with Route 30 to the Saranac Lake village line.
The techniques that are being used on these test road segments includes the use of a second scraper plow to minimize the number of passes each truck must make, use of magnesium chloride (MgCl) in place of or in addition to pure salt in ecologically sensitive areas, reduced truck speed (from 35 to 25 mph) to reduce salt splatter, added driver training, electronic monitoring of truck material distributions, and special signage to alert drivers to the test areas. NYSDOT hopes to get another 20+% reduction in salt use from these simple changes.

To monitor progress, purchased three sets of stream monitors, six in total, and provided support for the acquisition of 15 more through grants from the Lake Champlain Basin Program. These are now installed on streams along the test segments. Dr. Kelting says The first six "sensors have been recording conductivity on an hourly basis since January 16, and each sensor has recorded over 1,850 measurements so far. During this period we have also collected water samples six times (based on road salting and weather events) from these locations to analyze for sodium and chloride and other parameters. We will continue collecting samples and will analyze them later this summer once we've accumulated enough to run efficiently through the lab. After this, we will begin to develop the mathematical relationships between conductivity and the lab data. We plan to download the data from the sensors periodically and will develop time series plots of sodium and chloride from this data. The difference between the upstream and downstream plots will be a high resolution measurement of the effect of road salting. We can then couple this data with the road salt application data from the NYS DOT to begin interpreting the effect of road salting on stream water quality."

The peer-reviewed article that Dan Kelting produced was made available in reprint to all members in mid-2012. Copies are still available for all new members. This is the document that finally caused New York State to accept the magnitude of the problem and its overwhelming responsibility for our increasing lake salinity. We will meet again with after the winter of 2012-13 to review the program i and the testing on the four subject roads.

While we are on track to reduce salt loading of our surface waters further, the groundwater pollution issue looms large. Wells all over the area are coming up with chloride levels way over 100ppm and many have had to be abandoned. We are working with the State and other funding sources to try to extend the study done for surface waters to aquifers.






  Captions From Left: The Coordination subcommittee deliberates, Dr. Kelting presents his findings